The Bradford Report shows information based on the Bradford Factor and employee absences. This article will explain the theory behind the Bradford Factor and how it is calculated. To understand the layout of the Bradford report see this related article; Layout of the Bradford Report

Note: The following is a sample Bradford Report;

What is the Bradford Factor?
The Bradford Factor/Score is used in human resource management as a way of measuring employee absences and the disruption they cause to one's business. After extensive research carried out in Bradford University School of Management in the 1980's, it was theorised that shorter yet more frequent and unplanned absences from work were actually more disruptive to the running of a business than longer absences.

How is the Bradford Factor Calculated?
Bradford factor scores are based on the frequency and length of an employee’s absence during a defined period, usually 52 weeks.

The formula used is:
B= S² x D

B = Bradford factor score
S = total number of spells (instances) of absence for that individual in the given period
D = total number of days the individual was absent during the given period

What is a 'good' or 'bad' Bradford Factor Score?
The higher the Score an employee gets from the Bradford Score, the more disruptive their absences have been for the business.

For example in the sample report, Simon Adams and Pauly Shaughnessy both have 3 days absent. Simon was absent on 2 occasions (once for 1 day and once for 2 days) while Pauly was absent on 3 occasions for 1 day each time. Pauly's Bradford Score is higher than Simon's due to the fact he was absent for more "spells"/occasions.

Warnings when using the Bradford Factor
While a good indication, the Bradford Factor cannot take into account personal, human aspects and so a high Bradford Score must not be taken at face value, and should be investigated. 

For example, employees with serious illnesses may receive high Scores that are beyond control. Similarly employees may be absent to care for dependents. 

The Bradford Report is a great tool to investigate disruptions in ones business however it has its flaws. A human perspective should always be used to review high scores.

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